ಮುಖ್ಯ ಮೆನು ತೆರೆ

ಪರಿವಿಡಿ

ರಸಾಯನಶಾಸ್ತ್ರಕ್ಕೆ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ

ರಸಾಯನಶಾಸ್ತ್ರದ ನೊಬೆಲ್ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಯು ವಾರ್ಷಿಕವಾಗಿ ರಸಾಯನಶಾಸ್ತ್ರದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಾಧನೆಗಳಿಗೆ ರಾಯಲ್ ಸ್ವೀಡಿಷ್ ಅಕ್ಯಾಡಮಿ ಆಫ್ ಸೈನ್ಸಸ್ ನೀಡುವ ಒಂದು ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ. ಆಲ್ಫ್ರೆಡ್ ನೊಬೆಲ್ ಅವರು ೧೮೯೫ರಲ್ಲಿ ತಮ್ಮ ಉಯಿಲಿನ ಮೂಲಕ ಸ್ಥಾಪಿಸಿದ ೫ ನೊಬೆಲ್ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಇದೂ ಒಂದು.

೨೦೧೬ ನೊಬೆಲ್ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ

  • ಸ್ಟಾಕ್‌ಹೋಮ್‌ : ಅಣು ಚಾಲಿತ ಯಂತ್ರಗಳನ್ನು (ಮಾಲಿಕ್ಯುಲರ್‌ ಮೆಷಿನ್‌) ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ ಪಡಿಸಿದ ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸ್‌ನ ಜೀನ್‌ ಪಿರ್ರೆ ಸುವಾಜ್‌, ಬ್ರಿಟನ್ನಿನ ಜೆ.ಫ್ರೇಸರ್‌ ಸ್ಟೊಡಾರ್ಟ್‌ ಮತ್ತು ನೆದರ್‌ಲ್ಯಾಂಡ್ಸ್‌ನ ಬರ್ನಾರ್ಡ್‌ ಫೆರಿಂಗಾ ಅವರು ಈ ಸಾಲಿನ ರಸಾಯನ ವಿಜ್ಞಾನ ನೊಬೆಲ್‌ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಗೆ ಭಾಜನರಾಗಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಅಣುಗಳಿಂದ ರೂಪಿಸಿರುವ ಈ ಸಾಧನಗಳು ಜಗತ್ತಿನ ಅತ್ಯಂತ ಪುಟ್ಟ ಯಂತ್ರಗಳಾಗಿವೆ.
  • ‘ನಿಯಂತ್ರಿತ ಚಲನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿರುವ ಅಣುಗಳನ್ನು ಈ ಮೂವರು ವಿಜ್ಞಾನಿಗಳು ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ ಪಡಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ. ಶಕ್ತಿ ತುಂಬಿದಾಗ ಈ ಯಂತ್ರಗಳು ನಿರ್ದಿಷ್ಟ ಕೆಲಸಗಳನ್ನು ಮಾಡಬಲ್ಲವು’ ಎಂದು ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿಯ ಆಯ್ಕೆಗಾರರ ಮಂಡಳಿ ಹೇಳಿದೆ.

ಅಣು ಯಂತ್ರದ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ ಪಥ...

ಮೊದಲ ಘಟ್ಟಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ

  • ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸ್‌ನ ಜೀನ್‌ ಪಿರ್ರೆ ಸುವಾಜ್‌ 1983ರಲ್ಲಿ ಅಣು ಯಂತ್ರದ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಗೆ ಮುನ್ನುಡಿ ಬರೆದಿದ್ದರು. ಬಳೆ ಅಥವಾ ಉಂಗುರ ಆಕಾರದ ಎರಡು ಅಣುಗಳನ್ನು ಪರಸ್ಪರ ಕೂಡಿಸುವ ಮೂಲಕ ಅಣುಗಳ ಸರಪಣಿ ಸೃಷ್ಟಿಸುವಲ್ಲಿ ಯಶ ಕಂಡಿದ್ದರು. ಅಣು ಯಂತ್ರಗಳ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಇದು ಮೊದಲ ಹಂತ ಎಂದು ಬಣ್ಣಿಸಲಾಗಿದೆ.
  • ‘ಯಂತ್ರವು ಕೆಲಸ ಮಾಡಬೇಕಾದರೆ, ಪರಸ್ಪರ ಚಲಿಸುವಂತಹ ಭಾಗಗಳನ್ನು ಅವು ಹೊಂದಿರಬೇಕಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಸುವಾಜ್‌ ಅವರು ಸಂಪರ್ಕ ಬೆಸೆದ ಎರಡು ಅಣು ಬಳೆಗಳು ಈ ಅಗತ್ಯವನ್ನು ಪೂರೈಸಿವೆ’ ಎಂದು ನೊಬೆಲ್‌ ಪ್ರಶಸ್ತಿ ತೀರ್ಪುದಾರರ ಮಂಡಳಿ ಹೇಳಿದೆ.

ಎರಡನೇ ಘಟ್ಟ=ಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ

  • 1991ರಲ್ಲಿ ಜೆ.ಫ್ರೇಸರ್‌ ಸ್ಟೊಡಾರ್ಟ್‌ ಅವರು ಅಣು ಯಂತ್ರ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಯ ಎರಡನೇ ಹಂತವನ್ನು ಕೈಗೆತ್ತಿಕೊಂಡಿದ್ದರು. ಅಣು ಬಳೆಗಳನ್ನು ತೆಳ್ಳನೆಯ ಅಣು ದಂಡಕ್ಕೆ (ಆ್ಯಕ್ಸಲ್‌) ಅವರು ಪೋಣಿಸಿದ್ದರು. ಅಲ್ಲದೇ ಈ ದಂಡದ ಜೊತೆಗೆ ಅಣು ಬಳೆಗಳೂ ಚಲಿಸುತ್ತವೆ ಎಂಬುದನ್ನು ಪ್ರಾತ್ಯಕ್ಷಿಕೆ ಮೂಲಕ ತೋರಿಸಿದ್ದರು. ಸ್ಟೊಡಾರ್ಡ್‌ ಅವರು ಅಣುಗಳ ಲಿಫ್ಟ್‌, ಅಣು ಆಧಾರಿತ ಕಂಪ್ಯೂಟರ್‌ ಚಿಪ್‌ಗಳನ್ನು ಈಗಾಗಲೇ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ ಪಡಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ.

ಮೂರನೇ ಘಟ್ಟಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ

  • ಅಂತಿಮವಾಗಿ ಅಣು ಯಂತ್ರವನ್ನು ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ ಪಡಿಸಿದ್ದು ಬರ್ನಾರ್ಡ್‌ ಫೆರಿಂಗಾ. ಒಂದೇ ದಿಕ್ಕಿನಲ್ಲಿ ನಿರಂತರವಾಗಿ ತಿರುಗುವ ಅಣು ಬ್ಲೇಡ್‌ ರೂಪಿಸಲು 1999ರಲ್ಲಿ ಅವರು ಯಶಸ್ವಿಯಾಗಿದ್ದರು. ಅಣು ಯಂತ್ರಗಳನ್ನು ಬಳಸಿ ನ್ಯಾನೊ ಕಾರುಗಳನ್ನು ರೂಪಿಸಿದ ಹೆಗ್ಗಳಿಕೆಯೂ ಫೆರಿಂಗಾ ಅವರಿಗಿದೆ.[೧]

ಪುರಸ್ಕೃತರುಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ

ವರ್ಷ ಪುರಸ್ಕೃತರು[A] ದೇಶ[B] ಕಾರಣ[C]
1901   ಜಾಕೊಬಸ್ ಹೆನ್ರಿಕಸ್ ವಾಂಟ್ ಹೊಫ್ ನೆದರ್‌ಲ್ಯಾಂಡ್ಸ್ "[for his] discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"[೨]
1902   ಹೆರ್ಮನ್ ಎಮಿಲ್ ಫಿಷರ್ ಜರ್ಮನಿ "[for] his work on sugar and purine syntheses"[೩]
1903   ಸ್ವಾಂಟೆ ಅರ್ಹೇನಿಯಸ್ ಸ್ವೀಡನ್ "[for] his electrolytic theory of dissociation"[೪]
1904   ಸರ್ ವಿಲಿಯಮ್ ರಾಮ್ಸೆ ಯುನೈಟೆಡ್ ಕಿಂಗ್‌ಡಮ್ "[for his] discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"[೫]
1905   ಅಡಾಲ್ಫ್ ವಾನ್ ಬಾಯರ್ ಜರ್ಮನಿ "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"[೬]
1906   ಹೆನ್ರಿ ಮೊಯ್ಸಾನ್ ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸ್ "[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"[೭]
1907   ಎಡ್ವಾರ್ಡ್ ಬುಕ್ನರ್ ಜರ್ಮನಿ "for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"[೮]
1908   ಅರ್ನೆಸ್ಟ್ ರುದರ್‌ಫೋರ್ಡ್ ಯುನೈಟೆಡ್ ಕಿಂಗ್‌ಡಮ್
ನ್ಯೂ ಜೀಲ್ಯಾಂಡ್
"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"[೯]
1909   ವಿಲ್ಹೆಲ್ಮ್ ಓಸ್ಟ್ವಾಲ್ಡ್ ಜರ್ಮನಿ "[for] his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"[೧೦]
1910   ಆಟ್ಟೊ ವಾಲ್ಲಾಚ್ ಜರ್ಮನಿ "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[೧೧]
1911   ಮರಿ ಕ್ಯೂರಿ ಪೋಲ್ಯಾಂಡ್ "[for] the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"[೧೨]
1912   ವಿಕ್ಟರ್ ಗ್ರಿಗ್ನಾರ್ಡ್ ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸ್ "for the discovery of the [...] Grignard reagent"[೧೩]
  ಪಾಲ್ ಸಬಾಟಿಯರ್ ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸ್ "for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals"[೧೩]
1913   ಆಲ್ಫ್ರೆಡ್ ವೆರ್ನರ್ ಸ್ವಿಟ್ಜರ್‌ಲ್ಯಾಂಡ್ "[for] his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules [...] especially in inorganic chemistry"[೧೪]
1914   ಥೊಯೊಡೊರ್ ವಿಲಿಯಮ್ ರಿಚರ್ಡ್ಸ್ ಅಮೇರಿಕ ದೇಶ "[for] his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"[೧೫]
1915   ರಿಚರ್ಡ್ ಮಾರ್ಟಿನ್ ವಿಸ್ಟಾಟ್ಟರ್ ಜರ್ಮನಿ "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"[೧೬]
1916 Not awarded
1917 Not awarded
1918   ಫ್ರಿಟ್ಜ್ ಹೇಬರ್ ಜರ್ಮನಿ "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[೧೭]
1919 Not awarded
1920   ವಾಲ್ಥರ್ ಹರ್ಮನ್ ನರ್ಸ್ಟ್ ಜರ್ಮನಿ "[for] his work in thermochemistry"[೧೮]
1921 ಫ್ರೆಡ್ರಿಕ್ ಸಾಡ್ಡಿ ಯುನೈಟೆಡ್ ಕಿಂಗ್‌ಡಂ "for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"[೧೯]
1922 ಫ್ರಾನ್ಸಿಸ್ ವಿಲಿಯಮ್ ಆಸ್ಟನ್ ಯುನೈಟೆಡ್ ಕಿಂಗ್‌ಡಂ "for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"[೨೦]
1923   ಫ್ರಿಟ್ಜ್ ಪ್ರೆಗ್ಲ್ ಆಸ್ಟ್ರಿಯ "for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"[೨೧]
1924 Not awarded
1925 ರಿಚರ್ಡ್ ಅಡಾಲ್ಫ್ ಸಿಗ್ಮಾಂಡಿ ಜರ್ಮನಿ "for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used"[೨೨]
1926 ಥಿಯೊಡೋರ್ ಸ್ವೆಡ್ಬರ್ಗ್ ಸ್ವೀಡನ್ "for his work on disperse systems"[೨೩]
1927 ಹೆನ್ರಿಕ್ ಒಟ್ಟೊ ವೀಲಂಡ್ ಜರ್ಮನಿ "for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"[೨೪]
1928 ಅಡಾಲ್ಫ್ ಒಟ್ಟೊ ರೀನ್ಹೋಲ್ಡ್ ವಿಂಡಾಸ್ ಜರ್ಮನಿ "[for] his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"[೨೫]
1929 Arthur Harden United Kingdom "for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"[೨೬]
Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin ಜರ್ಮನಿ
1930 Hans Fischer ಜರ್ಮನಿ "for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"[೨೭]
1931 Carl Bosch ಜರ್ಮನಿ "[for] their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"[೨೮]
Friedrich Bergius ಜರ್ಮನಿ
1932   Irving Langmuir United States "for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"[೨೯]
1933 Not awarded
1934   Harold Clayton Urey United States "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"[೩೦]
1935 Frédéric Joliot France "[for] their synthesis of new radioactive elements"[೩೧]
Irene Joliot-Curie France
1936   Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye the Netherlands "[for his work on] molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"[೩೨]
1937 Walter Norman Haworth United Kingdom "for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"[೩೩]
Paul Karrer Switzerland "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
1938 Richard Kuhn ಜರ್ಮನಿ "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"[೩೪]
1939 Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt ಜರ್ಮನಿ "for his work on sex hormones"[೩೫]
Leopold Ruzicka Switzerland "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"[೩೫]
1940 Not awarded
1941 Not awarded
1942 Not awarded
1943   George de Hevesy Hungary "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[೩೬]
1944 Otto Hahn ಜರ್ಮನಿ "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"[೩೭]
1945 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen Finland "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"[೩೮]
1946 James Batcheller Sumner United States "for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"[೩೯]
John Howard Northrop United States "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"[೪೦]
Wendell Meredith Stanley United States
1947 Sir Robert Robinson United Kingdom "for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"[೪೧]
1948 Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius Sweden "for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"[೪೨]
1949 William Francis Giauque United States "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"[೪೩]
1950 Otto Paul Hermann Diels Federal Republic of Germany "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"[೪೪]
Kurt Alder Federal Republic of Germany
1951 Edwin Mattison McMillan United States "for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements"[೪೫]
Glenn Theodore Seaborg United States
1952 Archer John Porter Martin United Kingdom "for their invention of partition chromatography"[೪೬]
Richard Laurence Millington Synge United Kingdom
1953 Hermann Staudinger Federal Republic of Germany "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"[೪೭]
1954   Linus Carl Pauling United States "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"[೪೮]
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud United States "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"[೪೯]
1956 Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood United Kingdom "for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"[೫೦]
Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov USSR
1957 Lord (Alexander R.) Todd United Kingdom "for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"[೫೧]
1958   Frederick Sanger United Kingdom "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"[೫೨]
1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský Czechoslovakia "for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"[೫೩]
1960 Willard Frank Libby United States "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"[೫೪]
1961   Melvin Calvin United States "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[೫೫]
1962 Max Ferdinand Perutz United Kingdom "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[೫೬]
  John Cowdery Kendrew United Kingdom
1963 Karl Ziegler Federal Republic of Germany "for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"[೫೭]
Giulio Natta Italy
1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin United Kingdom "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"[೫೮]
1965 Robert Burns Woodward United States "for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"[೫೯]
1966 Robert S. Mulliken United States "for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"[೬೦]
1967 Manfred Eigen Federal Republic of Germany "for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"[೬೧]
Ronald George Wreyford Norrish United Kingdom
George Porter United Kingdom
1968 Lars Onsager United States "for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"[೬೨]
1969 Derek H. R. Barton United Kingdom "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"[೬೩]
Odd Hassel Norway
1970   Luis F. Leloir Argentina "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"[೬೪]
1971 Gerhard Herzberg Canada "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"[೬೫]
1972   Christian B. Anfinsen United States "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[೬೬]
Stanford Moore United States "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"[೬೬]
William H. Stein United States
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer Federal Republic of Germany "for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"[೬೭]
Geoffrey Wilkinson United Kingdom
1974 Paul J. Flory United States "for his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules"[೬೮]
1975 John Warcup Cornforth Australia
United Kingdom
"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"[೬೯]
Vladimir Prelog Switzerland "for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"[೬೯]
1976 William N. Lipscomb United States "for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"[೭೦]
1977 Ilya Prigogine Belgium "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[೭೧]
1978 Peter D. Mitchell United Kingdom "for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"[೭೨]
1979 Herbert C. Brown United States "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"[೭೩]
Georg Wittig Federal Republic of Germany
1980   Paul Berg United States "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[೭೪]
  Walter Gilbert United States "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[೭೪]
  Frederick Sanger United Kingdom
1981 Kenichi Fukui Japan "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"[೭೫]
Roald Hoffmann United States
1982 Aaron Klug United Kingdom "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"[೭೬]
1983 Henry Taube United States "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"[೭೭]
1984 75px Robert Bruce Merrifield United States "for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"[೭೮]
1985 Herbert A. Hauptman United States "for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"[೭೯]
Jerome Karle United States
1986   Dudley R. Herschbach United States "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"[೮೦]
Yuan T. Lee United States
John C. Polanyi Canada
1987 Donald J. Cram United States "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"[೮೧]
  Jean-Marie Lehn France
Charles J. Pedersen United States
1988 Johann Deisenhofer Federal Republic of Germany "for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"[೮೨]
  Robert Huber Federal Republic of Germany
Hartmut Michel Federal Republic of Germany
1989 Sidney Altman Canada
United States
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[೮೩]
  Thomas R. Cech United States
1990 Elias James Corey United States "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"[೮೪]
1991 Richard R. Ernst Switzerland "for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"[೮೫]
1992   Rudolph A. Marcus United States "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[೮೬]
1993 Kary B. Mullis United States "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"[೮೭]
Michael Smith Canada "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry [...] for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"[೮೭]
1994 George A. Olah United States "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"[೮೮]
1995 Paul J. Crutzen the Netherlands "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"[೮೯]
Mario J. Molina Mario J. Molina United States
  F. Sherwood Rowland United States
1996 Robert F. Curl Jr. United States "for their discovery of fullerenes"[೯೦]
  Sir Harold W. Kroto United Kingdom
Richard E. Smalley United States
1997 Paul D. Boyer United States "for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"[೯೧]
John E. Walker United Kingdom
Jens C. Skou Denmark "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"[೯೧]
1998   Walter Kohn United States "for his development of the density-functional theory"[೯೨]
John A. Pople United Kingdom "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"[೯೨]
1999 Ahmed H. Zewail Egypt
United States
"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"[೯೩]
2000 Alan J. Heeger United States "for their discovery and development of conductive polymers"[೯೪]
Alan G MacDiarmid United States
New Zealand
Hideki Shirakawa Japan
2001 William S. Knowles United States "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"[೯೫]
  Ryoji Noyori Japan
K. Barry Sharpless United States "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"[೯೬]
2002   John B. Fenn United States "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"[೯೭]
Koichi Tanaka ಜಪಾನ್
  Kurt Wüthrich Switzerland "for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [...] for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"[೯೭]
2003 Peter Agre United States "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for the discovery of water channels"[೯೮]
  Roderick MacKinnon ಅಮೇರಿಕ ದೇಶ "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [...] for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"[೯೮]
2004   Aaron Ciechanover ಇಸ್ರೇಲ್ "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"[೯೯]
  Avram Hershko ಇಸ್ರೇಲ್
  Irwin Rose ಅಮೇರಿಕ ದೇಶ
2005 Yves Chauvin France "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"[೧೦೦]
  Robert H. Grubbs ಅಮೇರಿಕ ದೇಶ
Richard R. Schrock ಅಮೇರಿಕ ದೇಶ
2006   Roger D. Kornberg United States "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[೧೦೧]
2007   Gerhard Ertl ಜರ್ಮನಿ "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"[೧೦೨]
2008   Osamu Shimomura United States[೧೦೩] "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"[೧೦೪]
  Martin Chalfie ಅಮೇರಿಕ ದೇಶ
  Roger Y. Tsien ಅಮೇರಿಕ ದೇಶ
2009 ವೆಂಕಟರಾಮನ್ ರಾಮಕೃಷ್ಣನ್ ಭಾರತ, ಯುನೈಟೆಡ್ ಕಿಂಗ್‌ಡಮ್ "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"[೧೦೫]
ಥಾಮಸ್ ಸ್ಟೀಟ್ಜ್ ಅಮೇರಿಕ ದೇಶ
ಆಡ ಯೊನಾಥ್ ಇಸ್ರೇಲ್

ಮೂಲಗಳುಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ

  1. ಅಣುಯಂತ್ರ ರೂವಾರಿಗಳಿಗೆ ನೊಬೆಲ್‌;6 Oct, 2016
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  3. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  4. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  5. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  6. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  7. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  8. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  9. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  10. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  11. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  12. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  13. ೧೩.೦ ೧೩.೧ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  14. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  15. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  16. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  17. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  19. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  22. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  28. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  29. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  30. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  31. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  32. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  33. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  34. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  35. ೩೫.೦ ೩೫.೧ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  36. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  37. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  38. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  39. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  40. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  41. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  42. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  43. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  47. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  50. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  51. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  52. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  53. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  69. ೬೯.೦ ೬೯.೧ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  84. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  85. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  86. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  87. ೮೭.೦ ೮೭.೧ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  88. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  89. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  90. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  91. ೯೧.೦ ೯೧.೧ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  92. ೯೨.೦ ೯೨.೧ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  98. ೯೮.೦ ೯೮.೧ "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
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  103. As of 26 October 2008, the nobelprize.org website page for the 2008 award gives Shimomura's country as "USA". However, the press release from the Nobel Foundation on 8 October 2008, announcing the award, states that Shimomura is a Japanese citizen. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008–Press Release". Nobelprize.org. 2008-10-08. Retrieved 2008-10-08. 
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  105. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009". Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2009-10-07.