"ಭಾರತ ಬಿಟ್ಟು ತೊಲಗಿ ಚಳುವಳಿ" ಆವೃತ್ತಿಗಳ ಮಧ್ಯದ ಬದಲಾವಣೆಗಳು

೧೯೪೪ರ ಪ್ರಾರಂಭದಲ್ಲಿ ಭಾರತ ಬಹುತೇಕವಾಗಿ ಶಾಂತವಾಗಿತ್ತು. ಚಳುವಳಿಯು ಸೋತುಹೋಯಿತೆಂಬ ನಂಬಿಕೆ ವ್ಯಾಪಕವಾಯಿತು. ಆದರೆ ಜಿನ್ನಾ ಮತ್ತು ಮುಸ್ಲಿಮ್ ಲೀಗ್ ಹಾಗೂ ಕಾಂಗ್ರೆಸ್ಸಿನ ಇತರ ವಿರೋಧಿಗಳಾದ ಕಮ್ಯೂನಿಸ್ಟರು ಮತ್ತು ಹಿಂದೂ ಕ್ರಾಂತಿಕಾರಿಗಳು ಗಾಂಧೀಜಿ ಮತ್ತು ಕಾಂಗ್ರೆಸ್ ಪಕ್ಷವನ್ನು ಟೀಕಿಸಿ ರಾಜಕೀಯ ಲಾಭ ಪಡೆಯಲು ಹವಣಿಸಿದರು.
 
==ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಚಳುವಳಿಯ ಕಾಣಿಕೆ==
==Contributions towards Indian Independence==
 
ಕೆಲವು ಚರಿತ್ರೆಕಾರರ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ಈ ಚಳುವಳಿಗೆ ಸೋಲುಂಟಾಯಿತು. ಕಾಂಗ್ರೆಸ್ ಪಕ್ಷವೂ ಕೂಡ ಆಗ ಇದೇ ನಿಲುವನ್ನು ಹೊಂದಿತ್ತು. ಸರ್ಕಾರದ ಕಾರ್ಯವನ್ನು ನಿಲ್ಲಿಸಿವ ಇರಾದೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಸೋಲುಂಟಾದರೂ, ಸರ್ಕಾರಕ್ಕೆ ಇದರಿಂದ ಸಾಕಷ್ಟು ಮುಜುಗರ ಮತ್ತು ಆತಂಕ ಉಂಟಾದವು. ಶೀಘ್ರವಾಗಿ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಪಡೆಯುವುದರಲ್ಲಿ ಇದು ವಿಫಲವಾಯಿತು. ಆರಂಭದ ಐದು ತಿಂಗಳಲ್ಲಿಯೇ ಬಹುತೇಕವಾಗಿ ಸ್ತಬ್ಧವಾಯಿತು. ಇದಕ್ಕಿದ್ದ ಒಂದೇ ಕಾರಣವೆಂದರೆ ಸರ್ಕಾರದ ಪರವಾಗಿ ಸೇನೆಗಿದ್ದ ಸ್ವಾಮಿತ್ವ. ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷ್ ಪ್ರಧಾನಮಂತ್ರಿ ಕ್ಲೆಮೆಂಟ್ ಅಟ್ಲೀ ಪ್ರಕಾರ ಈ ಚಳುವಳಿಯ ಕಾಣಿಕೆ ಅತೀ ಕಡಿಮೆಯದ್ದಾಗಿತ್ತು. ಆದರೆ ಭಾರತೀಯ ವಾಯುಪಡೆಯ ಅತೃಪ್ತಿಯನ್ನು ಮುಖ್ಯವಾಗಿ ಉದಾಹರಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ.
How much did Quit India contribute to the decision to relinquish the Raj?. Some historians claim it failed [http://banglapedia.search.com.bd/HT/Q_0017.htm]. By March 1943, the movement had petered out <ref> James L. ''Raj; Making and unmaking of British India''. Abacus. 1997. p571</ref> Even the Congress, at the time saw it as failure <ref> James L, op.cit </ref>. Analysis of the campaign obtained by Military Intelligence in 1943 came to the conclusion that it had failed in the aim of paralysing the government. It did however cause enough trouble and panick among the War administration for General Lockhart to describe India as an ''"Occupied and hostile country"''.<ref> James L. Op. Cit.</ref> However, much as it might have disconcerted the Raj, the movement may be deemed to have ultimately failed to bring the Raj to its knees and the negotiating table for immediate transfer of power, as it aimed to. It came to all but a close whithin five months of its inception, and was nowhere near its grandiose aim of toppling the Raj. The sole underlying reason, it seems, was the loyalty of the army, even where the local and native police came out in sympathy. <ref> James L, op.cit.</ref>. This certainly, was also the view of the [[Prime Minister of the United Kingdom|British Prime Minister]] at the time of transfer of power, [[Clement Atlee]]. Atlee deemed the contribution of ''Quit India'' as minimal, ascribing stupendous importance to the revolts and growing dissatisfaction among Royal Indian Armed Forces during and after the war as the driving force behind Britain's decision to leave India <ref>Dhanjaya Bhat, Writing in ''The Tribune,Sunday, February 12, 2006. Spectrum Suppl.'' <blockquote> Which phase of our freedom struggle won for us Independence? Mahatma Gandhi’s 1942 Quit India movement or The INA army launched by Netaji Bose to free India or the Royal Indian Navy Mutiny of 1946? According to the British Prime Minister Clement Attlee, during whose regime India became free, it was the INA and the RIN Mutiny of February 18-23 1946 that made the British realise that their time was up in India.</blockquote></ref>
 
ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಮಟ್ಟದಲ್ಲಿ ಚಳುವಳಿಗೆ ಯ್ಶಸ್ಸು ಸಿಗದಿದ್ದರೂ ಸತಾರಾ, ತಲಚೇರ್, ಮತ್ತು ಮಿಡ್ನಾಪುರಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಬಹು ಯಶಸ್ವಿಯಾಯಿತು. ಮಿಡ್ನಾಪುರದಲ್ಲಿ ಜನರು ಪರ್ಯಾಯ ಸರ್ಕಾರವನ್ನೂ ಸ್ಥಾಪಿಸಿದರು. ನಂತರ ಗಾಂಧೀಜಿಯ ಕರೆಗೆ ಓಗೊಟ್ಟು ಇದನ್ನು ಬಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಟ್ಟರು.
Although at the national level the ability to galvanize rebellion was limited, the movement is notable for regional success especially at [[Satara]], [[Talcher]], and [[Midnapore District|Midnapore]]. <ref> Chakraborty, Bidyut ''Local Politics and Indian Nationalism: Midnapur {1919-1944).''. Manohar. 1997.</ref> In [[Tamluk]] and [[Contai]] subdivisions of Midnapore, the local populace were successful in establishing parallel governments, which continued to function, until Gandhi personally requested the leaders to disband in 1944. <ref> ''Ibid.''</ref>
 
ಕಲ್ಕತ್ತಾ ಉಚ್ಚ ನ್ಯಾಯಾಲಯದ ಮಾಜಿ ಮುಖ್ಯ ನ್ಯಾಯಾಧೀಶರಾದ ಪಿ.ವಿ. ಚಕ್ರಬರ್ತಿಯವರ ಒಂದು ಲೇಖನದ ಪ್ರಕಾರ, "ನಾನು[[ಪಶ್ಚಿಮ ಬಂಗಾಳ]]ದ ರಾಜ್ಯಪಾಲನಾಗಿ ೧೯೫೬ರಲ್ಲಿ ನಿಯುಕ್ತನಾಗಿದ್ದಾಗ ಕ್ಲೆಮೆಂಟ್ ಅಟ್ಲೀಯವರನ್ನು ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರು ಭಾರತವನ್ನು ಬಿಟ್ಟು ಹೋಗಲು ಪ್ರಮುಖ ಕಾರಣವೇನೆಂದು ಕೇಳಿದಾಗ ದೊರೆತ ಉತ್ತರ: 'ಭಾರತ ಬಿಟ್ಟು ತೊಲಗಿ ಚಳುವಳಿಯು ೧೯೪೭ರ ಎಷ್ಟೋ ಸಮಯದ ಮುಂಚೆಯೇ ಸತ್ತುಹೋಗಿತ್ತು. ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರು ಭಾರತ ಬಿಟ್ಟು ಹೋಗಲು ಹಲವಾರು ಕಾರಣಗಳಿದ್ದವು, ಆದರೆ ಮುಖ್ಯವಾದವುಗಳೆಂದರೆ, ನೇತಾಜಿ [[ಸುಭಾಸ್ ಚಂದ್ರ ಬೋಸ್]] ರ ಭಾರತೀಯ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಸೇನೆಯ ಚಟುವಟಿಕೆಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಭಾರತ ಸೇನೆಗಳ ಬಂಡಾಯ.' <ref> http://www.tribuneindia.com/2006/20060212/spectrum/main2.htm.URL</ref>.
An extract from a letter written by P.V. Chuckraborty, former Chief Justice of Calcutta High Court, on March 30 1976, reads thus: "When I was acting as Governor of West Bengal in 1956, Lord Clement Attlee, who as the British Prime Minister in post war years was responsible for India’s freedom, visited India and stayed in Raj Bhavan Calcutta for two days`85 I put it straight to him like this: ‘The Quit India Movement of Gandhi practically died out long before 1947 and there was nothing in the Indian situation at that time, which made it necessary for the British to leave India in a hurry. Why then did they do so?’ In reply Attlee cited several reasons, the most important of which were the INA activities of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, which weakened the very foundation of the British Empire in India, and the RIN Mutiny which made the British realise that the Indian armed forces could no longer be trusted to prop up the British. When asked about the extent to which the British decision to quit India was influenced by Mahatma Gandhi’s 1942 movement, Attlee’s lips widened in smile of disdain and he uttered, slowly, ‘Minimal’."<ref> http://www.tribuneindia.com/2006/20060212/spectrum/main2.htm.URL accessed on 17-Jul-2006 </ref><ref>Majumdar, R.C., Three Phases of India's Struggle for Freedom, Bombay, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1967, pp. 58-59. There is, however, no basis for the claim that the Civil Disobedience Movement directly led to independence. The campaigns of Gandhi ... came to an ignoble end about fourteen years before India achieved independence ... During the First World War the Indian revolutionaries sought to take advantage of German help in the shape of war materials to free the country by armed revolt. But the attempt did not succeed. During the Second World War Subhas Bose followed the same method and created the INA. In spite of brilliant planning and initial success, the violent campaigns of Subhas Bose failed ... The Battles for India's freedom were also being fought against Britain, though indirectly, by Hitler in Europe and Japan in Asia. None of these scored direct success, but few would deny that it was the cumulative effect of all the three that brought freedom to India. In particular, the revelations made by the INA trial, and the reaction it produced in India, made it quite plain to the British, already exhausted by the war, that they could no longer depend upon the loyalty of the sepoys for maintaining their authority in India. This had probably the greatest influence upon their final decision to quit India.</ref> Some Indian historians however argue that,in fact, the movement had succeeded {{fact}}. In support of the latter view, without doubt,the war had sapped a lot of the economic, political and military life-blood of the Empire.At the time, from intelligence reports, , the [[Azad Hind Government]] under Netaji Bose in Berlin deemed this an early indication of success of their strategy of formenting public rebellion.<ref> James L op.cit</ref>
It may ultimately be a fruitless question whether it was the powerful common call for resistance among Indians that shattered the spirit and will of the [[British Raj]] to continue ruling India,or whether it was the forment of rebellion and resentment among the British Indian Armed Forces<ref>http://mondediplo.com/2005/05/13wwiiasia</ref><ref>http://www.tribuneindia.com/2006/20060212/spectrum/main2.htm</ref>. What is beyond doubt, however, is that a population of millions had been motivated as it never had been before to say ultimately that independence was a non-negotiable goal, and every act of defiance and rebel only stoked this fire.In addition, the British people and the British Army seemed unwilling to back a policy of repression in India and other parts of the Empire even as their own country lay shattered by the war's ravages.
The [[Indian National Army#Consequences of the I.N.A. Trials|INA trials]] in 1945, the [[Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon#The Red Fort trial|resulting militant movements]], and the [[Bombay Mutiny|Bombay mutiny]] had already shaken the pillar of the Raj in India<ref>Majumdar, R.C., Three Phases of India's Struggle for Freedom, Bombay, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1967, pp. 58-59.There is, however, no basis for the claim that the Civil Disobedience Movement directly led to independence. The campaigns of Gandhi ... came to an ignoble end about fourteen years before India achieved independence ... During the First World War the Indian revolutionaries sought to take advantage of German help in the shape of war materials to free the country by armed revolt. But the attempt did not succeed. During the Second World War Subhas Bose followed the same method and created the INA. In spite of brilliant planning and initial success, the violent campaigns of Subhas Bose failed ... The Battles for India's freedom were also being fought against Britain, though indirectly, by Hitler in Europe and Japan in Asia. None of these scored direct success, but few would deny that it was the cumulative effect of all the three that brought freedom to India. In particular, the revelations made by the INA trial, and the reaction it produced in India, made it quite plain to the British, already exhausted by the war, that they could no longer depend upon the loyalty of the sepoys for maintaining their authority in India. This had probably the greatest influence upon their final decision to quit India.</ref>.
By early [[1946]], all political prisoners had been released. British openly adopted a political dialogue with the Indian National Congress for the eventual transfer of power. On [[August 15]], [[1947]], India was declared Independent.
 
ಭಾರತದ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯದ ನಿಜವಾದ ಕಾರಣ ಭಾರತೀಯರ ವಿರೋಧವೇ ಅಥವಾ ಸೈನಿಕರ ಬಂಡಾಯವೇ ಎಂಬುದು ವಿವಾದಾತ್ಮಕವಾಗಿದ್ದರೂ ನಿಸ್ಸಂಶಯವಾಗಿ ಹೇಳಬಹುದಾದ ಸಂಗತಿಯೆಂದರೆ ಲಕ್ಷಾಂತರ ಜನರು ಪ್ರೇರಿತರಾಗಿ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಹೋರಾಡಿದರೆಂಬುದು. ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರ ಪ್ರತಿಯೋದು ನಡೆಯೂ ಇದನ್ನು ಮತ್ತಷ್ಟು ಪ್ರೇರೇಪಿಸಿತು. ಭಾರತೀಯ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಸೇನೆ ಮತ್ತು ಮುಂಬಯಿ ದಂಗೆ ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷ್ ಆಡಳಿತದ ಬುಡವನ್ನು ಅಲುಗಾಡಿಸಿದವು. [[೧೯೪೬]]ರ ವೇಳೆಗೆ ಎಲ್ಲ ಬಂಧಿತ ರಾಜಕೀಯ ಅಪರಾಧಿಗಳನ್ನು ಬಿಡುಗಡೆ ಮಾಡಲಾಯಿತು. ಕಾಂಗ್ರೆಸ್ ಪಕ್ಷಕ್ಕೆ ಅಧಿಕಾರ ಬಿಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳುವ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಸಾರ್ವಜನಿಕವಾಗಿ ಮಾತುಕತೆಗಳು ನಡೆದವು. [[ಆಗಸ್ಟ್ ೧೫]], [[೧೯೪೭]]ರಂದು ಭಾರತವನ್ನು ಸ್ವತಂತ್ರ ದೇಶವೆಂದು ಘೋಷಿಸಲಾಯಿತು.
A young, new generation responded to Gandhi's call. Indians who lived through ''Quit India'' came to form the first generation of independent [[India]]ns-whose trials and tribulations may be accepted to have sown the seeds of establishment of the strongest enduring tradition of democracy and freedom in post-colonial [[Africa]] and [[Asia]]- which, when seen in the light of the torrid times of [[Partition of India]], can be termed one of the greatest examples of prudence of humanity.
 
ಒಂದು ಹೊಸ ಯುವ ಪೀಳಿಗೆಯು ಗಾಂಧೀಜಿಯವರ ಕರೆಗೆ ಓಗೊಟ್ಟಿತ್ತು. ಈ ಚಳುವಳಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಹೋರಾಡಿದ ಭಾರತೀಯರು ಸ್ವತಂತ್ರ ಭಾರತದ ಪ್ರಥಮ ಪೀಳಿಗೆಯವರಾಗಿ ವಸಾಹತುಶಾಹಿ ಕಾಲದ ನಂತರ ಪ್ರಪಂಚದ ಅತಿ ಗಟ್ಟಿಯಾದ ಪ್ರಜಾಪ್ರಭುತ್ವವನ್ನು ಸ್ಥಾಪಿಸಿದರು. ಇದನ್ನು ಮಾನವಕುಲದ ದೂರದರ್ಶಿತ್ವದ ಮಹತ್ತರ ಉದಾಹರಣೆಯೆಂದು ಹೇಳಬಹುದು.
Some photographs taken by an individual Satyagrahi during the Quit India Movement at [[Bangalore]], (present capital of the State of [[Karnataka]]), are also shown.
 
==Notes==
೫೨೩

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