ಸುಂಕಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ವ್ಯಾಪಾರದ ಮೇಲಿನ ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯ ಒಪ್ಪಂದ (ಸಂಕ್ಷಿಪ್ತವಾಗಿGATT-ಗ್ಯಾಟ್) ಇದೊಂದು ೧೯೪೮ರಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಯ೯ಗತಗೊಂಡಿದ್ದ ಅಂತರರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ವ್ಯಾಪಾರ ಒಪ್ಪಂದವಾಗಿತ್ತು. ಜನವರಿ ೦೧,೧೯೯೫ರಂದು ವಿಶ್ವ ವ್ಯಾಪಾರ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಯು ಆರಂಭವಾಗಿ ಈ ಗ್ಯಾಟ್ ಒಪ್ಪಂದವನ್ನು ಸ್ಥಾನಪನ್ನ ಮಾಡಿತು. ಕ್ಯೂಬಾದ ಹವಾನಾದಲ್ಲಿ ೧೯೪೮ರಲ್ಲಿ ೨೩ ದೇಶಗಳ ಒಪ್ಪಿಗೆಯೊಂದಿಗೆ ಆರಂಭವಾದ ಈ ಒಪ್ಪಂದವು ೧೯೯೪ರ ಮರ್ರಾಕೇಶ್ ಸುತ್ತಿನ ಮಾತುಕತೆಯವರೆಗೆ ಸಕ್ರಿಯವಾಗಿತ್ತು. ಹವಾನಾದಲ್ಲಿ ವಿಶ್ವಸಂಸ್ಥೆಯ ವ್ಯಾಪಾರ ಮತ್ತು ಉದ್ಯೋಗ ಸಮಾವೇಶಕ್ಕಾಗಿ ಸೇರಿದ್ದ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಗಳ ನಡುವೆ ಒಂದು ಅಂತರರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ವ್ಯಾಪಾರ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆ ರಚಿಸುವ ಸಂಬಂಧ ಒಮ್ಮತ ಮೂಡದೆ ಕೇವಲ ಒಂದು ಸಾಮಾನ್ಯ ವ್ಯಾಪಾರ ಒಪ್ಪಂದವು ಅಂಗೀಕಾರವಾಯಿತು. ಗ್ಯಾಟ್ ೧೯೯೫ರಲ್ಲಿ ಡಬ್ಲ್ಯುಟಿಒದಿಂದ ಸ್ಥಾನಾಪನ್ನವಾಯಿತಾದರೂ, ಅದರ ಮೂಲ ಪಠ್ಯವು ಹಲವು ಮಾಪಾ೯ಡುಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಈಗಲೂ ವಿಶ್ವ ವ್ಯಾಪಾರ ಸಂಸ್ಥೆಯ ಸಂರಚನೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಮುಂದುವರಿದಿದೆ.
GATT held a total of 8 rounds.
|GATT and WTO trade rounds|
|Geneva||April 1947||7 months||23||Tariffs||Signing of GATT, 45,000 tariff concessions affecting $10 billion of trade|
|Annecy||April 1949||5 months||13||Tariffs||Countries exchanged some 5,000 tariff concessions|
|Torquay||September 1950||8 months||38||Tariffs||Countries exchanged some 8,700 tariff concessions, cutting the 1948 tariff levels by 25%|
|Geneva II||January 1956||5 months||26||Tariffs, admission of Japan||$2.5 billion in tariff reductions|
|Dillon||September 1960||11 months||26||Tariffs||Tariff concessions worth $4.9 billion of world trade|
|Kennedy||May 1964||37 months||62||Tariffs, Anti-dumping||Tariff concessions worth $40 billion of world trade|
|Tokyo||September 1973||74 months||102||Tariffs, non-tariff measures, "framework" agreements||Tariff reductions worth more than $300 billion dollars achieved|
|Uruguay||September 1986||87 months||123||Tariffs, non-tariff measures, rules, services, intellectual property, dispute settlement, textiles, agriculture, creation of WTO, etc||The round led to the creation of WTO, and extended the range of trade negotiations, leading to major reductions in tariffs (about 40%) and agricultural subsidies, an agreement to allow full access for textiles and clothing from developing countries, and an extension of intellectual property rights.|
|Doha||November 2001||?||159||Tariffs, non-tariff measures, agriculture, labor standards, environment, competition, investment, transparency, patents etc||The round is not yet concluded.|
ಅನ್ನೇಸಿ ಸುತ್ತು - ೧೯೪೯ಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ
ಟೋಕ್ವೇ೯ ಸುತ್ತು - ೧೯೫೧ಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ
The third round occurred in Torquay, England in 1950. Thirty-eight countries took part in the round. 8,700 tariff concessions were made totaling the remaining amount of tariffs to ¾ of the tariffs which were in effect in 1948. The contemporaneous rejection by the U.S. of the Havana Charter signified the establishment of the GATT as a governing world body.
Geneva Round - 1955-1956ಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ
The fourth round returned to Geneva in 1955 and lasted until May 1956. Twenty-six countries took part in the round. $2.5 billion in tariffs were eliminated or reduced.
Dillon Round - 1960-1962ಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ
The fifth round occurred once more in Geneva and lasted from 1960-1962. The talks were named after U.S. Treasury Secretary and former Under Secretary of State, Douglas Dillon, who first proposed the talks. Twenty-six countries took part in the round. Along with reducing over $4.9 billion in tariffs, it also yielded discussion relating to the creation of the European Economic Community (EEC).
Kennedy Round - 1964-1967ಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ
Kennedy Round took place from 1964-1967.
Tokyo Round - 1973-1979ಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ
Reduced tariffs and established new regulations aimed at controlling the proliferation of non-tariff barriers and voluntary export restrictions. 102 countries took part in the round. Concessions were made on $190 billion worth.
Uruguay Round - 1986-1993ಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ
The Uruguay Round began in 1986. It was the most ambitious round to date, hoping to expand the competence of the GATT to important new areas such as services, capital, intellectual property, textiles, and agriculture. 123 countries took part in the round.
Agriculture was essentially exempted from previous agreements as it was given special status in the areas of import quotas and export subsidies, with only mild caveats. However, by the time of the Uruguay round, many countries considered the exception of agriculture to be sufficiently glaring that they refused to sign a new deal without some movement on agricultural products. These fourteen countries came to be known as the "Cairns Group", and included mostly small and medium sized agricultural exporters such as Australia, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia, and New Zealand.
The Agreement on Agriculture of the Uruguay Round continues to be the most substantial trade liberalization agreement in agricultural products in the history of trade negotiations. The goals of the agreement were to improve market access for agricultural products, reduce domestic support of agriculture in the form of price-distorting subsidies and quotas, eliminate over time export subsidies on agricultural products and to harmonize to the extent possible sanitary and phytosanitary measures between member countries.
GATT and the World Trade Organizationಸಂಪಾದಿಸಿ
In 1993, the GATT was updated (GATT 1994) to include new obligations upon its signatories. One of the most significant changes was the creation of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The 75 existing GATT members and the European Communities became the founding members of the WTO on 1 January 1995. The other 52 GATT members rejoined the WTO in the following two years (the last being Congo in 1997). Since the founding of the WTO, 21 new non-GATT members have joined and 29 are currently negotiating membership. There are a total of 153 member countries in the WTO.
Of the original GATT members, Syria and the SFR Yugoslavia has not rejoined the WTO. Since FR Yugoslavia, (renamed to Serbia and Montenegro and with membership negotiations later split in two), is not recognised as a direct SFRY successor state; therefore, its application is considered a new (non-GATT) one. The General Council of WTO, on 4 May 2010, agreed to establish a working party to examine the request of Syria for WTO membership. The contracting parties who founded the WTO ended official agreement of the "GATT 1947" terms on 31 December 1995.
Whereas GATT was a set of rules agreed upon by nations, the WTO is an institutional body. The WTO expanded its scope from traded goods to trade within the service sector and intellectual property rights. Although it was designed to serve multilateral agreements, during several rounds of GATT negotiations (particularly the Tokyo Round) plurilateral agreements created selective trading and caused fragmentation among members. WTO arrangements are generally a multilateral agreement settlement mechanism of GATT.
- World Trade Organization: WTO legal texts; General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1994
- a)The GATT years: from Havana to Marrakesh, World Trade Organization
b)Timeline: World Trade Organization – A chronology of key events, BBC News
c)Brakman-Garretsen-Marrewijk-Witteloostuijn, Nations and Firms in the Global Economy, Chapter 10: Trade and Capital Restriction
- Michael Hudson, Super Imperialism: The Origin and Fundamentals of U.S. World Dominance, 2nd ed. (London and Sterling, VA: Pluto Press, 2003), 258.
- What is the WTO? (Official WTO site)